How to install Capacitor Bank for 3-phase Power Factor Correction

How to install Capacitor Bank for 3-phase Power Factor Correction, How to install the capacitors bank to improve the power factor of a 3 phase electrical installation?

As we know, that in 3 phase electrical installation, there are 3 types of power, namely:
  • Apparent power
  • Active power
  • Reactive power
The amount of Active Power greatly influences how much we can repair power losses. In this case, the Power loss is Reactive Power, and the way to improve Reactive Power or Power Factor correction on an 3-Phase Electrical installation is installed the Capacitor Bank, So that it is expected as much as possible to achieve a good power factor value (greater than 0.95).

Capasitor bank installation can properly correct Power losses, so the Active Power Value can be better and the value is almost the same as the apparent Power Value, To get the Active Power value equal to Apparent Power, Reactive Power Value or power factor of 1.00 is required.

However, to achieve the value of power factor 1.00 is a very difficult and impossible thing, In addition, the power factor value of 1.00 will actually cause a loss of loading on the electrical installation. Therefore as much as possible we can correct the power losses by achieving the value of reactive power or power factor nearing the value of 1.00. In general, the standard value of power factor is between ​of 0.85 to 0.95.

However, there are several things that need to be considered to install Capacitors bank to get the results that we want.

How to install Capacitor Bank for 3-phase Power Factor Correction

Wiring Diagram Capasitor Bank Installation
The way to install capacitors bank can be divided into 3 kinds, namely:

1. Global compensation
Capacitors bank are installed in the Main Panel or MDP (Main Distribution Panel), Decreasing electric current in this way occurs in the conductor between the main panel (MDP) and the power source (transformer or generator).

2. Sectoral Compensation
Installation of capacitors bank consisting of several capacitor panels installed in the sector panel or sub panel, Installation of Capacitors bank in this way is usually used in industries that have large loads that reach thousands of KVA, and installation of MDP with Sub Panels has a considerable distance.

3. Individual Compensation
Installation of Bank Capacitors in this way is installed directly on each installed load, especially on electrical equipment with large loads.

Installation of Capacitors bank by Individual Compensation is actually more effective and better. But it has disadvantages because it will require separate Capasitors bank installation space, making it more difficult to maintain. Especially if there are hundreds of electrical equipment that must be fitted by each Capasitors bank.

In terms of the ratio of reactive power (Qc) to total power (Sn), the installation of Bank Capacitors is divided into two ways:
  • If Qc / Sn <15% uses a fixed convention
  • If Qc / Sn> 15% uses the Automatic Convention system
For Capacitors bank with the Automatic convention system using a tool called the Power Factor Regulator to measure the Power Factor and determine how much Capacitors bank is needed to be turned on according to the target power factor to be achieved.

In the market, there are various types and brands of Power Factor Regulators that we can use for setting up the automatic capacitor convention system of banks.

To determine the type of capacitor to be used, you can use the method below.

Determining the Type of Capasitor:
  • If Gh / Sn <15% uses a Standard Type Capasitor
  • If 15% <Gh / Sn <25% use Capasitor Type H-Range
  • If 25% <Gh / Sn <60% uses Capasitor Type H-Range + Detuned Reactor
Gh : Total Harmonic Power
Sn : Total Power

Incorrect installation of Capacitors bank will cause the Capasitors bank that we install not be able to provide maximum functionality, therefore making sure the installation of Capacitors bank has been done appropriately and according to needs.

My Electrical Diary

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